European Journal of Environmental Sciences 2018-06-16T22:25:23+02:00 Pavel Kindlmann Open Journal Systems <div> <p>The&nbsp;<em><strong>European Journal of Environmental Sciences</strong></em> offers a mixture of original refereed research papers, which bring you some of the most exciting developments in environmental sciences in the broadest sense, often with an inter- or trans-disciplinary perspective, focused on the European problems. The journal also includes critical reviews on topical issues, and overviews of the status of environmental protection in particular regions / countries. The journal covers a broad range of topics, including direct or indirect interactions between abiotic or biotic components of the environment, interactions of environment with human society, etc. For more details see the full Aims and Scope of the journal. The journal is published twice a year (June, December).</p> </div> Use of multicriteria analysis and GIS for selecting sites for onshore wind farms: the case of Andros Island (Greece) 2018-06-16T22:24:56+02:00 Athina Bili mail@test.mail Dimitra G. Vagiona <p>Since wind power is one of the most promising sources of Renewable Energy (RES), the number of wind farms installed around the worldis constantly increasing. The aim of this paper is to develop a mechanism for determining and evaluating the suitability of areas for sitingwind farms, using a combination of Multi-criteria Data Analysis and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This study was carried out onthe island of Andros, Greece. The process involved a four-step gradual exclusion of unsuitable areas for siting wind farms and an evaluationof compatible areas using criteria both from this country’s institutional framework and international literature. During the evaluation ofavailable areas, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), pairwise comparison is used in which the weightings were determined bya group of experts. Despite the very favourable wind conditions on Andros, only a small percentage of its total area was given a high scorefor siting wind farms, due to the strict constraints imposed. The proposed methodology for the optimum siting of wind parks can be used inany study area and at any planning scale (local, regional, national level).</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A methodological approach for holistic energy planning using the living lab concept: the case of the prefecture of Karditsa 2018-06-16T21:17:11+02:00 Ioanna Giannouli Christos Tourkolias mail@test.mail Christian Zuidema mail@test.mail Anastasia Tasopoulou mail@test.mail Sofia Blathra mail@test.mail Koen Salemink mail@test.mail Katharina Gugerell mail@test.mail Paraskevas Georgiou mail@test.mail Thomas Chalatsis mail@test.mail Cathy Christidou test@mail.test Vassilis Bellis mail@test.mail Niki Vasiloglou mail@test.mail Nikolaos Koutsomarkos mail@test.mail <p>The development of urban and rural landscapes has entered a pioneering era with novel combinations of energy production andconsumption and related changes in the urban and rural fabric including associated socioeconomic issues. Accompanying this change isa realization that newly developing energy initiatives are more viable for development and upscaling and are less vulnerable to failure andresistance from society if they are well integrated into their local and regional contexts. However, institutional questions remain regardingthe required mechanisms and levels of integration, while simultaneously sustainable energy planning requires that the stakeholders withdiverse and conflicting objectives come to some degree of consensus. Inspired by these findings, a methodological approach for holisticenergy planning on a regional/local level was developed within the framework of the INTENSSS-PA project that is funded by HORIZON2020. The approach provides a holistic energy plan, which goes beyond a blueprint for allocating renewable technologies and is basedon the involvement of the wider community. Hence, this approach includes aspects such as the development of spatial concepts, newco-creating strategies, business cases, societal alliances and institutional changes and formats. To implement this approach, the LivingLab (LL) concept is applied. The case of Karditsa, in Greece, will be presented as evidence of the effectiveness of the proposed planningapproach.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Modeling urban dynamics: the case of periurban development in east Thessaloniki 2018-06-16T21:20:33+02:00 Georgia Pozoukidou <p>Understanding cities and their development is a complex and multifaceted issue. Cities are places where individuals, households, companiesetc. concentrate to benefit from the agglomeration and proximity of urban activities. There are many ways to approach the critical questionof how urban activities are spatially organized and interrelated to produce space and create cities. Recently a great number of complexsystems were developed as part of the complexity theory approach in order to study urban dynamics, while mathematical models are seenas a new opportunity to explore the spatial relations via new evolutionary approaches.</p> <p>Taking into consideration that the world is complex and no model can incorporate all the possible factors that cause urban growth wefocus on the dynamics of land use and transportaiton infrastructure using a simple urban model for the periurban area of east Thessaloniki.Given the fact that there are no records of such models being used in studies of Greek cities over the last 25 years, makes this an importantcontribution to the use of models in a greek setting. Therefore, an applicability assessment of the model for the three different modellingsteps (data acquisition, calibration and forecasting) is conducted. The application of the model indicates that despite issues about theavailability of data, the calibration and forecasting results are promising for the use of urban models in greek cities. Furthermore it highlightsthe significance of using quantitative methods for understanding cities as systems, which in turn will enable us to make better planningdecisions about our cities in the future.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aspects of marine spatial planning and governance: adapting to the transboundary nature and the special conditions of the sea 2018-06-16T21:24:34+02:00 Marilena Papageorgiou Stella Kyvelou mail@test.mail <p>Extension of spatial planning from land to the marine space has recently become a key procedure for tackling the growing environmental and blue growth related challenges. However, given the transboundary nature of the sea (facilitating the flow of all kinds of materials and calling for special considerations in terms of resource and ecosystem management) not all the philosophy, planning models and procedures can be “transplanted” from terrestrial to marine spatial planning. Governance issues are subject to the same limitation.This paper discusses key differences in the marine environment (compared to the land), which affect marine spatial planning and governance and is structured around the following key issues: (i) the public status of the sea, which involves a wide spectrum of stakeholders (amongthem the maritime regimes), (ii) the sovereign rights in the sea that are not separately defined by each state but by UNCLOS (especially beyond the territorial waters), (iii) the geopolitical constraints on proclaiming EEZs that reduce the area within which each coastal country can practice MSP, (iv) the usually non-defined administrative limits in the marine parts of a coastal country that impede decentralization of competencies and decision making, and (v) the lack of geospatial and socio-economic and cultural data, which creates uncertainty both for the planners and decision-makers.This article concludes by highlighting the need for adopting a tailor-made MSP research agenda and by stressing the need to enhance crossborder cooperation as well as to make transboundary considerations when planning in the sea.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Urban environmental degradation: realities and historical illusions 2018-06-16T21:34:03+02:00 Athena Christina Syrakoy <p>Every day citizens and visitors in Greek cities often find themselves constantly struggling with impediments: obstacles to their movement, their vision, to breathing air, etc. One cannot walk without being cautious so as not to stumble over a poorly repaired sidewalk, although it would have been easy to repair. You may find yourself next to the sea, but blocks of flats may hide it from you, restricting you to an endless maze, even though studies highlight the benefits for human health when coexisting with the natural bodies of water. One almost seems to be always close to roads with many car lanes and high traffic volumes; again despite the fact that studies highlight the adverse effects of car emissions on health. Why is this happening? Why do we choose and create such conditions? This paper attempts to shed some light on these questions by examining selected historical references to the ‘promised lands’ and some of the causes of the contemporary urban environmental degradation. The discussion focuses on an effort to comprehend the gap between the existence of urban environmental proposals and their lack of implementation at a greater scale, by (a) examining theories and proposals of major scholars concerning the environmental upgrading of urban space and by (b) examining the causes of the existing environmental urban degradation that currently affect many cities.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Progress with monitoring and assessment in the WFD implementation in five European river basins: significant differences but similar problems 2018-06-16T21:38:54+02:00 Theodoros Giakoumis mail@test.mail Nikolaos Voulvoulis <p>The river basin approach of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the introduction of ecological status represent a shift in the assessment and management of freshwater systems from discipline-specific to more holistic, catchment-based principles. At the core of the WFD’s approach are catchments as highly interconnected systems. Despite strict timetables, progress towards achieving the WFD objectives has been slow, with deterioration in some cases not being halted. In this paper, looking at evidence from five European basins (Adige, Anglian, Ebro, Evrotas and Sava) we identify some of the key implementation challenges faced by each catchment during the development and implementation of the 1st River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs) of 2009. Despite significant differences in socio-ecological conditions, geographic coverage and starting points in the implementation between these river basins, findings highlight some similar key issues. The lack of a common systemic understanding of each river basin and detailed monitoring data to capture pressure-status interactions in order to anticipate how the system will react to interventions; as well as compliance driven implementation efforts were underlying problems in all five study areas. While some improvements to address these problems can be seen in the 2nd River Basin Management Planning Cycle (2015–2016), our findings demonstrate that a more effective approach is to question the deviation of the whole implementation from the directive’s systemic nature and therefore improve the adaptive, collaborative, participatory and interdisciplinary nature of the implementation efforts.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Potential for developing tourism in a sub-regional growth area (Roxas-Dumaran-Taytay) in northern mainland Palawan 2018-06-16T21:44:23+02:00 Ralphael Gonzales Edgar M. Reyes Jr mail@test.mail <p>The majority of the tourism industry on mainland Palawan is located in the north of the province. El Nido and Puerto Princesa are the most visited tourist areas in Palawan. The municipalities between these areas are considered to be sub-regional growth areas (Roxas, Dumaran and Taytay) since they serve as transition areas from one tourist hot spot to another. This study explores the tourism potentials of the sub-regional groregionwth areas using a potential analysis. By exploring the cases of Roxas, Dumaran and Taytay, various potentials were identified that could contribute to the development of this region of the island. Characterization resulted in the identification of the competitive advantages of each municipality, which were used to develop this region in a way that assures a sustainable growth of this subregion that complements that occurring in the tourist hot spots.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Island-mainland nexus: the case of the coastal livelihood of Tingloy Island and the southwestern portion of Batangas, Philippines 2018-06-16T21:48:14+02:00 Edgar M. Reyes Jr <p>This research explored the natural resources available to the island municipality of Tingloy, Batangas. It looks at fisheries as the economic resource of an island and how this activity is linked in with the larger economic context of the mainland. Tingloy is a rural settlement the livelihood of which is dependent on fishing and its spatio-economic links with the mainland through fisheries. Fishing is the subsistence economy of Tingloy, with the surplus exported to the mainland. However, a fishery product flow analyses showed that the fishermen of Tingloy are marginalized by the disproportionate distribution of the income in favour of middlemen and fish dealers. Support facilities (such as ports, cold storage, processing units, trading posts, etc.) to further improve the local economy of the island is limited and must be upgraded. Also, transport facilities and other infrastructures to assure the integration of the local-regional economic function of the island municipality must be carefully crafted. Interventions to further improve the local economic condition of the island and its integration with that of the mainland are directed towards improved institutional arrangements, stricter implementation of existing local ordinances, and regional development planning that would take a holistic view and consider the vast resource base of the local government units.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Green jobs, a new measure of public management and sustainable development 2018-06-16T21:59:32+02:00 Adam Sulich Tomasz Zema mail@test.mail <p>The aim of this article is to propose a measurable definition of green jobs based on balanced, durable and sustainable development, which is an example of both the Green Economy and New Public Management (NPM) concepts. This approach is justified due to the nature of NPM, which uses the goals of management and measures of effectiveness. In this paper, the definition of green jobs is formulated as tool for measuring, based on the Polish Classification of Activities (PKD), which has roots in the classifications proposed by UN the ISIC and Eurostat NACE. Then the ease with which this tool can be used is tested by determining the efficiency of labour market institutions. Therefore, the green jobs concept can be much wider than just a qualitative description of an organisation’s strategy. In this paper it is proposed that green job characteristics based on section E of PKD is more specific and because of its quantitative approach it is a suitable measurement not only in Polish conditions, but generally.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sustainable decommissioning and integrated closure planning of selected mine sites in the Bicol Region, Philippines 2018-06-16T22:02:51+02:00 Amelia B. Gonzales <p>The study assessed the status of the Rapu-Rapu Minerals, Incorporated (RRMI) and the Filminera Resources Corporation (FRC) which are the polymetallic and mineral mining sites, respectively in the Bicol Region, Philippines regarding their mine closure and decommissioning procedures in relation to the impact communities that they engaged. It is in this context that the study was implemented to set a management direction in the inevitable event of mine closure and decommissioning. The study utilized the qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Respondents consisted of the key officials of government agencies and municipal and barangay officials as well as households of the host and impact communities covering the two mining sites of Rapu-Rapu and Aroroy as well as community organizations and mining company representatives. Findings showed that both mining sites extract similar resources and have been paying taxes to the Philippine government. Although the RRMI has initiated its mine closure process, decommissioning is underway and still needs to undergo its standard procedure with various stakeholders, while FRC has its operations ongoing. It is recommended that mine closure planning must be integrated within the overall mine operations plan, and should be integral to the operational life cycle of the mine sites.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Setting the grounds for the green infrastructure in the metropolitan areas of Athens and Thessaloniki: the role of green space 2018-06-16T22:09:50+02:00 Marilena Papageorgiou Georgia Gemenetzi mail@test.mail <p>Green Infrastructure (G.I.) is a <em>sine qua non </em>in contemporary planning. Green spaces can play a vital role in serving as grounds for developing G.I. and promoting environmental, social and economic benefits. In Athens and Thessaloniki (the only metropolitan areas in Greece) there has been no Green Infrastructure planning. However, existing and prospective green spaces can play a catalyzing role in the development of a Green Infrastructure. In fact, even though inadequate and insufficiently dispersed, urban green spaces present great potentials for embedding the features of “green”, “connectivity”, “multifunctionality” and “accessibility”, which are key to G.I. planning. The concept of Green Infrastructure has long been embedded in policy documents, such as the Master Plans of both metropolitan areas. And even if the G.I. term is not clearly stated in either Master Plans, there is a clear goal for the designing and networking of green spaces, to provide leisure opportunities and other functions, as well as accessibility to all citizens.</p> 2018-06-16T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##