European Journal of Environmental Sciences <div> <p>The&nbsp;<em><strong>European Journal of Environmental Sciences</strong></em> offers a mixture of original refereed research papers, which bring you some of the most exciting developments in environmental sciences in the broadest sense, often with an inter- or trans-disciplinary perspective, focused on the European problems. The journal also includes critical reviews on topical issues, and overviews of the status of environmental protection in particular regions / countries. The journal covers a broad range of topics, including direct or indirect interactions between abiotic or biotic components of the environment, interactions of environment with human society, etc. For more details see the full Aims and Scope of the journal. The journal is published twice a year (June, December).</p> </div> Institute for Environmental Studies en-US European Journal of Environmental Sciences 1805-0174 <p><img src="" alt=""></p> <p>The journal applies the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer" data-saferedirecturl=";q=;source=gmail&amp;ust=1498303854119000&amp;usg=AFQjCNH67tnPLSbE07_rKTEN6OVwmr_ryg"><wbr>licenses/by/4.0</a>) to articles and other works we publish. If you submit your paper for publication by European Journal of Environmental Sciences, you agree to have the CC BY license applied to your work. The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</p> Influence of tectonic faults on the conditions and properties of some components of a biogeocenosis in a subarctic area <p>In geoecology, the nature of the effect of tectonic faults on the environment is not well studied. The influence of natural landscapegeochemicalfactors on the state and properties of some components of biota of different hierarchical levels is studied at the intersection oftwo tectonic faults (Velsko-Ust’yanskiy tectonic knot (TK)) in the Arkhangelsk region. Two species of shrubby lichens (<em>Cladonia stellaris </em>Opiz.and <em>Usnea subfloridana </em>Stirt.) and woody plants (spruce – <em>Picea abies </em>L. and Scots pine – <em>Pinus sylvestris </em>L.) were chosen as test systems. Thefield studies were carried out at nine test sites (in the centre, on the periphery and some distance from TK – the background reference point)in different types of forest. The ash content of samples of the lichen <em>Cladonia </em>growing in the centre of the TK (1.12–1.22%) is double that in thecontrol area (0.56–0.58%), and for the lichen <em>Usnea</em>, it is seven times higher (6.82–6.99% at the centre and 0.97–1.09% in the control area). Theash content of tree bark collected at the centre of TK (1.27–1.29%) is double that at the control site (0.56–0.76%). This indicates a significantaccumulation of metals in the vegetation in the TK zone. The accumulation of heavy metals, the low water content of plants, the influenceof geomagnetic fields and other factors provoke excessive generation of active oxygen radicals and plants have various physiological,biochemical and morpho-biometric means of combating their adverse effects. The synergism of the cooperative protective action of lichenmatrix components on oxidative stress is expressed in terms of changes in biochemical parameters. At the centre of the TK, the lichenscontains up to 190 μg g−1 of ascorbic acid, whereas in the control area it does not exceed 130 μg g−1. The content of usninic acid in thecentre is 1.5–2 times higher for the <em>Usnea subfloridana </em>and is 1.5 times higher for <em>Cladonia stellaris </em>compared to the level in the control area.</p> Vladimir Belyaev Konstantin Bogolytsyn Olga Brovko Yuriy Kutinov Nikolay Neverov Irina Palamarchuk Tatiana Boytsova Dmitriy Chukhchin Dmitriy Zhiltsov Natalia Gorshkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 9 1 5 11 10.14712/23361964.2019.1 A quantitative approach to land use planning using GIS – A case study of Chabahar County, Iran <p>Land use planning aims to formulate activities, administer potential changes and prevent incompatible changes. The aim of this studyis to prepare a land use plan for Chabahar County, Iran, based on a quantitative model using GIS. This study involves two main stages.First, the overlaying of geographical maps and preparing ecological capability maps of different land uses, like forestry, agriculture, rangemanagement, environmental conservation, ecotourism and development of villages, urban areas and industry using GIS. The second stageinvolves prioritizing the land uses taking into consideration the ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the study area and using aquantitative model. The results indicate that the proposed model provides better land use planning than Iran’s Makhdoom model. The newmodel provides clearer and more suitable uses for the land than those used currently. The results also indicated that the maximum area ofproposed uses (52.17%) was related to ecotourism, showing this land use had high potential and socio-economic demands in study area.Also, minimum area of proposed uses was related to development.</p> Hamid Reza Jahantigh Masoud Masoudi Parviz Jokar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 9 1 12 20 10.14712/23361964.2019.2 Forest development in a restored floodplain: effects of grazing, inundation and vegetation <p>In many countries worldwide, measures have been taken in floodplains for flood prevention and nature rehabilitation. In the Netherlands, floodplains are lowered by excavating to enlarge the discharge capacity and to create opportunities for development of river habitats such as forest. As forest can obstruct the water flow through the floodplain, their development has to be controlled in some cases. In many floodplains, vegetation development is controlled by cattle and horses. We carried out an exclosure experiment over a twelve year period in a partly excavated and year-round grazed floodplain along a lowland river in the Netherlands. We focussed on the thorny shrub hawthorn (<em>Crataegus monogyna</em> Jacq.) as it plays an important role in the obstruction of the water flow and in the wood-pasture cycle. Most hawthorn shrubs established on the excavated part of the floodplain with low cover of tall herbs. The total number of established hawthorn was negatively related to inundation on the lower parts of the excavated sites and positively related to inundation on the higher parts of the excavated sites. The herbivores negatively affected establishment and growth of hawthorn. Although lowering the floodplain by excavation will increase discharge capacity of the floodplain in the short term, it will decrease in the long term as excavation also increases opportunities for floodplain forest. If flood prevention and nature rehabilitation are both goals to be achieved in a floodplain, hawthorn encroachment can be controlled by a clever design of the measures and grazing management is needed.</p> Perry Cornelissen Mathieu Decuyper Karlè Sýkora Jan Bokdam Frank Berendse ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 9 1 21 32 10.14712/23361964.2019.3 Study of the effects of mycorrhiza, fulvic acid, seaweed extract and urea on physiological traits and leaf yield of tobacco (Burley 21) <p>To study the effects of mycorrhiza, fulvic acid, seaweed extract and urea on physiological trait and leaf yield of tobacco, an experiment was carried out as split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Marivan during 2015 year. In this study, the main factor was two levels of inoculation by mycorrhiza including: control: no inoculation and inoculation by mycorrhiza (<em>Glomus interaradices</em>) and subplot were stimulation growth compound in 5 levels as: control-distilled water, fulvic acid, seaweed extract, urea, fulvic acid+ seaweed extract + urea. The results showed that the characters, including: numbers of leaves and dry leaf weight of the middle leaf side of plant were affected significantly by mycorrihza. Hence, numbers of leaf and leaf dry weight of middle leaf side were increased by mycorrhiza inoculations. Also the results of foliar application of stimulation plant growth were showed that relative water content, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight in lower side leaves and leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight in middle side leaves and also spad and leaf fresh weight of upper side leaves of tobacco were affected significantly.</p> Shabnam Moradi Babak Pasari Reza Talebi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 9 1 33 39 10.14712/23361964.2019.4 Comparative susceptibility of Chironomus and Drosophila to exposure to each and combinations of the following stressors: desiccation, heat stress and starvation <p>In natural ecosystems, organisms are usually subject to environmental stress. In order to understand the response to a combination ofthree stressors (desiccation, heat stress and starvation), two dipteran insects, <em>Chironomus ramosus </em>(aquatic) and <em>Drosophila melanogaster</em>(terrestrial) were chosen, the former being more primitive than the latter. The mortality level as a function of the duration of the exposureto stress revealed that these two evolutionarily distinct and ecologically diverse insects differ in their response. Interestingly, when thetolerance thresholds of <em>C. ramosus </em>and <em>D. melanogaster </em>to single and multiple stressors was compared, a synergistic effect was recordedwith much higher levels mortality occurring when subjected simultaneously to several stressors. <em>Chironomus </em>larvae were more vulnerablethan <em>Drosophila </em>larvae when subjected to all three stressors simultaneously. The findings of this pilot study indicate the ecological risk formacro-invertebrate biota posed by adverse environmental conditions.</p> Pratibha Nivrutti Bomble Bimalendu Nath ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 9 1 41 46 10.14712/23361964.2019.5 Optimal scarification times for seeds of two mediterranean orchids <p>A critical step during the <em>in vitro </em>sexual propagation of Mediterranean orchids is the treatment of seeds with a disinfecting solution thatalso serves to scarify the seeds. If the seeds are not properly disinfected, microorganisms grow within the culture vessel, thus reducingthe efficacy of the process in terms of the extra time and materials required. On the other hand, a long period of disinfection may damagethe embryo. The literature is inconclusive with respect to the proper combination of disinfectant strength and duration of the treatment. Theobjective of this research is to determine the optimal scarification times for two orchid species with thin and thick seed coats, respectively.Seeds of <em>Anacamptis laxiflora </em>(Lam.) and <em>Himantoglossum robertianum </em>(Loisel.) were treated with 0.5% NaClO solution for 5, 15, 25, 35, 45,55, 65, 75 and 85 minutes and sown in modified organic Malmgren medium. Logistic regression models were fitted to the results. We foundthat the longer the chemical treatment, the lower the percentage infection and higher the percentage germination, within the range oftimes tested. A chemical treatment of 85 minutes in 0.5% NaClO results in satisfactory percentage germination for both seeds with relativelypermeable seed coats such as <em>A. laxiflora (</em>Lam.) and those with relatively impermeable seed coats such as <em>H. robertianum (</em>Loisel.).</p> Eirini Katsalirou Argyrios Gerakis Xenophon Haldas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 9 1 47 52 10.14712/23361964.2019.6 How much is aphid population dynamics affected by their natural enemies? An empirical example from Greece <p>By monitoring of 50 aphid colonies in 2017 and another 50 colonies in 2018 twice a week, we looked at how the aphid dynamics wasaffected by their natural enemies. This will help us to see, how much the presence of natural enemies shortens the duration of an aphidcolony, which may be one of the causes, why <em>Harmonia axyridis </em>is not very successful in the Mediterranean: the aphid colony may exist for aperiod of time too short in the Mediterranean conditions to enable successful development of <em>H. axyridis</em>.</p> Zuzana Štípková Pavel Kindlmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## Creative Commons Attribution License ( 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 9 1 53 57 10.14712/23361964.2019.7